Intrauterine Device (IUD)

Amongst many contraceptive methods the one of the most popular in is IUD. It is a contraceptive device shaped like T; it is fitted in the uterus of the women. It is also called as coil, loop.
How does it work,
An IUD as one or two fine threads which comes out of the cervix and rests usually on top of the vagina.
The IUD is inserted usually during the menstruation period and has to be inserted only by a trained doctor or a nurse in order to prevent any complication.
The mechanism how IUD works is very simple it basically stops sperms from reaching the female egg.
The IUD usually releases copper into the mucosa of the uterus and foreign body reaction is activated resulting in the presence of a lot of WBC and natural killer cells, along with a lot of mucus being released in the fallopian tubes uterus and cervix.
Once sperms are deposited in the vagina or cervix the mucus plug makes it difficult for them to travel upwards and the WBC will kill the slow moving sperms , also the egg released from the ovary will not be able to move easily because of the excess mucus plug present thus preventing any implantation on the womb.
How is it implanted,
There are several types of IUD for different type of women, and once the doctor and you come to a conclusion of which IUD is better suited for you, there will be an internal examination before the IUD is fitted; this is to determine the size of the womb, and also to rule out any STD.
Only a trained doctor or a nurse will insert the IUD through the cervix and into the womb correctly positioning the T into the fallopian tubes. The procedure usually takes 10-15 minutes.
Sometimes local anesthesia or pain killers will be given before the procedure as some might feel uncomfortable during the procedure. There will be one or two thread which comes out of the cervix and rests on top of vagina, this is to check for the position of the IUD.
Once IUD is inserted the doctor checks the position of the device after first month and later after a year, to make sure the device has not moved or caused any infection.
Indications and contraindications:
Any women who are planning for a contraceptive method can use IUD.
The contraindication are
Women with previous history of unexplained bleeding.
Women who had ectopic pregnancy.
Women who have problem with cervix or uterus like congenital bifid uterus.
Women with recent abortion.
Women with untreated sexually transmitted disease.
If the IUD is introduced by a trained doctor or a nurse there will be no complications, however the probable complications include
Rupture of the womb by the device.
Movement of the device into one of the fallopian tube.
Movement of the device into abdominal cavity
Pelvic shock syndrome due to infection.
Severe pain in the lower abdomen.
Appearance of cysts, though this is not harmful if the condition escalates into multiple cysts of ovary then there could be a problem

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